Eight Lessons by Imam Ghazali (Radi Allahu anhu)

Imam Ghazali tomb YOUNG MAN: Reflect, too, upon the story of Hatim the deaf who was the companion of  Shaqiq al-Balkhi (may the mercy of Allah be upon them both). One day Shaqiq enquired of Hatim: “For 30 years you have been my companion. What, pray, have you gained from  it?” Hatim replied: “I have gained eight benefits with which I am contented and from which I  expect my salvation and my deliverance.” “And what are they?” Shaqiq asked. Said Hatim:

THE FIRST is that I looked at creation and noticed that to everyone there  belongs a beloved. And a part of that which is beloved to him accompanies  him to his death – sickness, while another part accompanies him only to the  edge of his grave. But none (of the above) enters with him. So I reflected   and said to myself: “The most beloved is the companion accompanying one into the grave! I found  this companion to be none other than Righteous Deeds. So I embraced her as  my beloved to be a shining light and an intimate friend never to abandon me  when I would be most alone.

THE SECOND is that I looked at man and found him guided by his whims and  fancies, forever hastening to the fulfilment of his lower desires. So I  meditated upon the verse: “But as for him who feared to stand before his Lord and restrain his soul  from lower desires; his abode will be the Garden..” and came to know, with the knowledge of certainty, that the Qur’an was  indeed the Truth. Then swiftly I moved to free myself from its vain desires until they rested,   contented, in obedience to Allah, the High, the Exalted and finally  consented to His Will.

THE THIRD is that I noticed every single person greedily striving to gain  for himself the vanities of the world. Then I reflected upon the verse: “What is with you must vanish and what is with Allah must endure.” So I spent my life’s earnings in the way of Allah and divided them amongst  the poor to be as a treasure for me in the care of Allah.

THE FOURTH is that I saw a number of people who thought that their honour  and strength resided in the sheer abundance of their clan and kinsfolk.  Others claimed and boasted that it was contained in the amount of their   wealth and children. Others reckoned that it was to be found in the  extortion of wealth, oppression of others, and the shedding of their blood.  Yet another group believed that strength and honour was to be found in  extravagance – in the wasting and squandering of money. Then I thought  about the words of Allah: “Verily, the most honoured of you (is he who) is the most righteous of you.” I then chose righteousness for myself for I had come to know with firmness  of belief that the Qur’an was indeed the truth and that their opinions and  assumptions were false and ephemeral.

THE FIFTH is that I saw people finding fault with each other and back-biting  one another. The root of this I discovered to be envy (hasad) – envy of  wealth and rank and knowledge. So I reflected upon the verse: “It is We who portion out between them their livelihood in the life of this  world..” and came to know that apportionment was from Allah, the Sublime, and  ordained in eternity. With this I envied none and contented myself with the  allotment of Allah, the Most High.

THE SIXTH is that I saw people feuding – for one reason or another – amongst  themselves. But after reflecting upon the Verse: “Verily Satan is an enemy to you; so treat him as an enemy…” I realised that hostility to other than Satan is not permissible.

THE SEVENTH is that I saw people striving so earnestly in search of support  and livelihood that they debased themselves and diminished their   self-respect by falling prey to the dubious and the prohibited.  Consequently I thought about the words of Allah: “There is no moving creature on earth but its sustenance depends on  Allah…” and realised that since my sustenance depended solely on Allah the Most  High, He indeed would ensure it. So I turned my attention to the devotion  of Allah, the Most High, and may Him alone the object of desire.

THE EIGHTH is that I saw everybody dependent on created things. Some  depended on the dirham or the dinar and others on wealth and possessions.  Some depended on a craft or vocation while others depended on people like  themselves. But after I reflected upon the verse: “And he who puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah) for him, Allah  will surely accomplish his purpose. Verily, for all things has Allah  appointed a due proportion.” I firmly placed my trust in Allah for He, most certainly, is sufficient for  me and the most excellent of those in whom we can trust. Shaqiq then said: “May Allah grant you success. Indeed I have looked into the Torah, the  Injil (Gospel), the Zabur (Psalms), and the Furqan (Qur’an) and found that  these eight principles constitute the essence of that which is contained in  these four books. He who acts in accordance with these principles acts in  accordance with the teachings contained in these books.”

YOUNG MAN: From these two examples you can see that there is no need for a vast  increase in your learning. I will now explain to you what is necessary for  those who choose to travel upon the path of Truth. Know that it is   essential for you to attach yourself to a Spiritual Guide and Teacher who,   through his spiritual instructions, will purify yourself from evil  tendencies and replace them with nobility of character. And the definition  of this “spiritual instruction” may be likened to that of the husbandman who   removes the thorns and plucks out the weeds from the young plantation so  that it may grow to perfection. It is necessary for the traveller (salik)  to attach himself to a spiritual master to guide and instruct him in his  journey to Allah the Most High, for Allah Himself sent to His worshippers a  Prophet to guide them along His path. The Prophet in his turn has left  behind those who act as his successors and who guide to the way of Allah.  The necessary condition, which qualifies the guide to act as the viceroy of  Prophet, is that he has to be deeply learned. But this condition is not  sufficient, for every learned man does not by virtue of his learning alone  qualify as a successor of the Prophet. I will now explain to you in a   general manner the signs by which you may recognise the true guide, so that   not just anyone can lay claim to this position. We say: He who renounces love of the world and the desire for rank; and he who  follows an enlightened guide whose spiritual chain extends in unbroken  sequence to Muhammad, the Lord of the Messengers (may the peace and  blessings of Allah be upon him); and he who excels in refining himself by  observing modesty in eating, speaking and sleeping, and by much praying,   almsgiving and fasting; and he who, in imitation of an enlightened guide,   makes virtue his way of life-amongst which are counted patience, prayer,   prayer, thanksgiving, dependence on Allah, certainty of knowledge,  generosity contentedness, inner peace, clemency, humility, knowledge,  truthfulness, modesty, reliability, sobriety, tranquillity, and  perseverance. He who meets these requirements may be considered as a light  of the lights of the Prophet and worthy of emulation. However, the existence of such a one is rare, and, if found, is mightier   than red sulphur (al-kibrit al-ahmar). If good fortune helps the seeker in finding such a guide, then it behoves  him to respect him both outwardly and inwardly. As for outward respect it  consists in refraining from argumentation with your guide and from vying  with him in the derivation of proofs even if you know that he is wrong. You  should also refrain from placing your prayer carpet in front of him except   during the times of obligatory prayers. As for the extra prayers, do not prolong their performance in his presence.  Lastly, do what he orders you to do according to your capacity. Inner  respect, on the other hand, is not to reject inwardly in deed or in word –  that which you hear and seem to accept from him outwardly. For that is the  sign of the hypocrite. Furthermore, in order to avoid the influence of the   Satans of the jinn and of man, one should refrain from the companionship of   he who is of ill repute. In this way one becomes purified (and saved) from   all satanic evils. One should also, under all circumstances, choose poverty   above richness. Know, too that sufism (tasawwuf) embraces two important characteristics:

ONE: Righteousness (istiqamah) and

TWO: To be at peace with (the rest) of Creation. He therefore, who  perfects his morals and treats others with kindness and gentleness, is  indeed a true sufi. And righteousness is to sacrifice his personal   pleasures in order to attain the pleasure of Allah, the Most High. As for   moral excellence it is to judge others- as long as they do not violate the   Sacred Laws – not in terms or the excellence you assume in yourself, but in   terms or the excellence you assume in them.

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