Sexual Intercourse

The following rules of sexual intercourse should be observed:

  1. Before actual coition, hold conversation of sexual love and give caresses and kisses. Play and toy in order to rouse sexual organs for easy cohabitation.
  2. Before the act is begun, recite the following: “In the Name of Allah, the Almighty and the Great, Allah is Greatest. O Allah! Protect us from the devil. And keep the devil aloof from what You have provided us.”
  3. Don’t turn the face towards the West.
  4. At the time when semen runs out, think of this verse: “All praise is for Allah Who created man from water. Then He made for him blood and marriage relationship.” (25: 54)
  5. Don’t let out your semen very soon at least before the ovary of your wife comes out. This is made much easier when kisses and caresses and other tactful ways rouse wife’s passions.
  6. Try to enter semen into uterus and don’t throw it outside without any excuse.
  7. Before your second coition, sexual organs must first be cleaned and washed.
  8. Ablution should be made after coition.
  9. Coition should be avoided as far as possible in the nights of the new moon, full moon and at the end of the lunar month.
  10. Sexual intercourse is desirable when the husband and the wife both show inclination for it, and no forcible coition should take place. When a man calls his wife to bed and she declines, Angels curse her and Almighty Allah remains displeased with her.
  11. Coition must always be made with the male organ and the female vaginal canal and never through the rectum.

On the following occasions, sexual intercourse is unlawful:

  1. Intercourse during continuance of the menses of the wife. The Holy Quraan says: “They ask you about menstruation. Say, it is a little harmful.” Therefore, keep aloof from women during their menstrual discharge and do not go near them until they are clean.
  2. After childbirth till the stoppage of blood nearly up to the 40th day.
  3. During the hours of fasting from the appearance of whiteness till the setting of the sun. Intercourse during night is not prohibited even during the fasting month.
  4. Unnatural intercourse either with male or with an animal is unlawful.

If a man promises not to go unto his wife for four months, and if in the meantime, he does not have sexual intercourse with her, the wife will be considered as divorced if not taken in the mean time.

ADOPTION

Adoption is forbidden in Islam is most certain. In verses 4 and 5 of Surah 33, entitled “Al-Ahzab” or “The Clans” we read what may be rendered in translation as follows: “nor has He made your wives whom you declare (to be your mothers) your mothers, nor has He made those whom you claim (to be your sons) your sons. This is but a saying of your mouths. But Allah says the truth and He shows the way. Proclaim their real parentage. That will be more equitable in the sight of Allah. And if you know not their fathers, then they are your brethren in the faith, and your clients. And there is no sin for you in the mistakes that you make unintentionally, but what your hearts purpose (that will be a sin for you). Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”. (33: 4-5)

This is a clear statement of prohibition. When Almighty Allah says that He has not made a particular relationship in a certain fashion, He means that He disapproves of that fashion. When Almighty Allah disapproves something, He forbids it.

This is not to say that a Muslim family may not raise an orphan child or that a woman may not bring up her sister’s children or a man may not look after his brother’s infants. Indeed, such an action is highly rewarded by Almighty Allah. What is more important is to keep the relationship clear and according to the fact. The children must be called after their own parents.

We have also the Holy Prophet’s (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) Sunnah to confirm this prohibition. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had adopted Sayyiduna Zaid Bin Haritha (radi Allahu anhu) as his son before the advent of Islam. Sayyiduna Zaid (radi Allahu anhu) was known from that moment as “Zaid Bin Muhammad”. However when this Quraanic verse was revealed, Zaid (radi Allahu anhu) was called after his own father, Haritha. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) continued to love Sayyiduna Zaid (radi Allahu anhu) and his children, especially Sayyiduna Usamah (radi Allahu anhu), very dearly.

The question of leaving one’s property by Will to one’s adopted child is truly a separate matter. Islam established a system of inheritance, which is very detailed and fair to all. This system is an essential part of the overall Islamic economic system that ensures the division of property generation after generation. It takes into account the fact that according to Islam, a person is “put in charge” of his property, which belongs to Almighty Allah. Therefore, it is Almighty Allah Who decides how property is divided after death.

If someone raises an orphan child, he can leave a portion of his property by Will. Every person is allowed to bequeath by Will up to one-third of his property, but the beneficiaries of his Will cannot include any of his heirs.

INTERDICTION AGAINST ABOMINABLE

It is narrated on the authority of Sayyiduna Abu Sa’eed (radi Allahu anhu) that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue; and if he has not strength enough to do it (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart, and that is the least of faith.” (Muslim)

This Hadith throws a good deal of light on how the society is to be kept safe and secure from evil and corruption. It has been made an obligatory act for every Muslim to see carefully that the moral health of the community does not deteriorate, and whenever there is any sign of decadence in any quarter it should be checked with determination. Islam does not allow its followers to lead the life a silent spectator in the world; it has made them duty-bound to eradicate evil, since once it is allowed to creep into the society, it corrodes it and the whole social structure crumbles down. It has, therefore, been enjoined upon the believers to take effective measures to fight against it. Those who have power enough to check it with force must do so, while others by means of preaching and persuasion should try to sweep it out of effective existence, but if the circumstances become so adverse that even this becomes impossible, then we should at least keep our conscience alive to the fact that it is an evil and should be strongly abhorred, and wait for a suitable opportunity to drive it out completely.

It must be made clear in this connection that the commentators of the Hadith are of the view that forbidding with the help of hand implies the power of the State. That it is the duty of the State and society to check the evil in all its forms and shapes and in case of necessity even the strictest measures may be adopted.

Imam Nawawi (alaihir rahmah) says there is a consensus of opinion that this act of bidding the people to do good and forbidding them to do wrong is obligatory on believers.

ISLAMIC VIEW ON TRADE & COMMERCE

There are no two opinions that the trade and commerce play a very crucial role in the acquisition of wealth. It is next to Jihad, but superior to industry, agriculture and service. Commerce is a harbinger of good news and prosperity and forms the backbone of acquisition of wealth.

The Holy Quraan says: “We have made the day a means of earning livelihood.” (78:11) The Holy Quraan also gives us encouragement to take up business by saying: There is no sin on you to seek wealth from your Lord.

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Take to trade, because there are nine portions in trade out of ten portions of provisions.” (Ihya-ul-Uloom by Imam Ghazzali – alaihir rahmah)

The Companions of the Glorious Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) carried on maritime and land trade throughout the then known world and thus Arab merchants carried the torch of new light to the darkest corners of the world.  Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) himself carried on trade as an agent of the famous Arab lady, Sayyidah Khadijah (radi Allahu anhu). The major Caliphs, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddique (radi Allahu anhu) was a cloth merchant, while Sayyiduna Omar Farooq (radi Allahu anhu), the Second Caliph of the Islamic Commonwealth carried on corn trade. Sayyiduna Usman Ghani (radi Allahu anhu) had a business in textiles.

Islam laid much stress on honesty in almost all dealings especially in trade and commerce. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) classed an honest merchant with a Prophet on account of the merchant’s following the Sharee’ah rules in trade, classed him with the truthful on account of his being steadfast to truth, and classed him with a Martyr on account of his fighting with heavy odds in treading the path of virtue and honesty in his profession.

Sayyiduna Jaabir (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “There was a man amongst those who were before you. The Angel came to him to take his breath. He was questioned, “Have you done any good deed?” He replied, “I don’t know.” The Angel said, “Try to remember.”  He said, “I don’t know anything except that I used to carry on business with the people in the world, show kindness to them, give time to the solvent and remit the needy”. Then Allah admitted him in Paradise.” (Agreed)

Sayyiduna Abu Sa’eed (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “The truthful trustworthy merchant will be with the Prophets, Truthful and Martyrs”. (Tirmidi)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Holy Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Oath is a means of bargain for the commodities but a cause of deterioration in blessing.” (Agreed)

Buy and Sale

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported from the Glorious Messenger (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) who said: “The two (seller and buyer) must not part away except by mutual consent.” (Abu Da’ood)

Sale is contracted by a declaration and acceptance expressed unequivocally in words or in expressions conveying the same meaning. The acceptance may be deferred until the breaking up of the meeting whether the declaration be made personally or by letter or message. An offer made by the purchaser cannot be restricted by the seller or to any particular parts of the goods. A little deviation from the offer or acceptance will not make the sale complete. A sale may be entered into either for ready money or for payment within a fixed time. Gains may be sold for other gains of different species.

There are four kinds of sale:

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Shares and Stocks

It is certainly permissible to invest one’s money in buying and selling shares, provided that the shares you buy or sell are that of a business, which is permissible to operate. Thus, it is perfectly permissible to own shares in a furniture company, an iron and steel corporation, a supermarket, a travel agency, a computer business, etc. The list is endless.

It is not permissible, however, to own share in a wine company, a brewery, a gambling shop, etc. because all these either sell things that are forbidden or provide services that are also forbidden. That makes any profits earned from such business forbidden to have.

A Bank that operates on the capitalist system of finance belongs to this second category, because much of its operations are interest charging. When you buy shares in a Bank, you are actually owning a portion of that Bank which means you are involved in all its operations, in a way, you are actually helping in all its operation. Therefore, it is forbidden to own shares in a Bank where interest is the basis for most of its transactions

Measurement and Weight

Islam has attached great importance to weight and measurement in commercial transactions. The Holy Quraan lays special stress: “Fulfill your weight and measure with just balance; this is good and better in interpretation.” (17:35)

The Holy Quraan warns us of the severe punishment that is incurred by violation of the principles. The people of the Prophet Shu’aib (alaihis salaam) were destroyed for this very reason. The Holy Quraan says: “Woe to the defaulters who, when they measure from people, take it with full measure, and when they measure out to them or weigh out for them, decrease. Do not these think that they shall be raised up for a great day?” (83:1-4)

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