THE MODE OF BAY’T

The bay’t is enacted by the Shaikh taking into his right hand the right hand of the mureed (disciple). If the group contracting the bay’t is large, the Shaikh uses a length of cloth onto which each member of the group holds with his right hand. Ladies who contract the bay’t do so from behind a screen. A mahram of the lady should also be present at the bay’t ceremony. Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) said:

“Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) never touched the palm of a woman, but he would make the (pledge-bay’t) upon her. Upon having made the bay’t he would say. ‘Go! Verify, I have already made bay’t with you.’ ” (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu-Dawood)

It is for this reason that in entering ladies into the bay’t, the Masha-ikh do so verbally or by means of a cloth which is spread from the Shaikh to the lady behind the screen. This is the method of bay’t when in the presence of the Shaikh. Those who are not able to present themselves personally to the Shaikh could contract the bay’t by means of a letter or through the agency of a responsible and trustworthy person. This form of bay’t is called bay’t-e-Uthmani. Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) on the occasion of bay’t-e-Ridhwan made the bay’t of Hadhrat Uthmaan in his (Uthmaan Radi Allahu anhu’s) absence. On this occasion, Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) placed his right hand on his left hand and announced that he has made bay’t of Uthmaan (Radi Allahu anhu). (The bay’t in absence of the mureed is therefore termed bay’t-e-Uthmaani,)

Bay’t (Mutual Pledge)

Bay’t is a mutual pledge relating to the striving, arranging, executing and adhering to the laws of A’male Zahiri and A’male Batini. This pledge is called Bay’t-e-Tareeqat which has been in vogue by authoritative transmission from generation to generation from the earliest time of Islam.

Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) had enacted bay’t of the Sahaabah not only on Jihad, but on Islam and the adherence of the Ahkam (Laws in general) as well on practical deeds (A’mal). This is established by numerous Ahadith. The following hadith is one such Hadith:

“Auf Ibn Maalik Ash-ja-ee (radhiyallahu anhu) said: We were with Nabi (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam), seven, eight or nine (of us), when he (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) said:

‘Will you not make bay’t (pledge) to the Rasul (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) of Allah (Azzawajal) ?’

We stretched our hands and enquired: On what shall we make bay’t to you, O Rasul (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) of Allah (Azzawajal)? He said:

‘That you make the Ibaadat of Allah (Azzawajal); that you associate nothing with Him; that you perform the five Salaat; that you hear and obey.” (Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nisai)

On this occasion the bay’t which Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) took from the Sahaabah was neither Bay’t Imaani (Pledge of Imaan) nor Bay’t Jihaadi (Pledge to wage Jihad). This Hadith is categoric proof for the validity of the system of bay’t in vogue by the Masha-ikh of Tasawwuf. Like there are four Math-habs (Schools of Thought) in Fiqh, viz. Hanafi, Shafi, Maaliki and Hambali, so too are there four schools of thought in Tasawwuf, viz., Chishtiyya, Qaderiyyah, Naqshabandiyyah and Suharwardiyyah. Like the Hanafi Way is dominant in this area (India and Pakistan), the Chistiyyah Way too is dominant here. Our akabir (authorities in Tasawwuf) enter into (bay’t) in all the four Schools of Thought (Silsilah) so that respect for the four Silsilah is maintained although Chishtiyyat is dominant .

The founder of the Chishtiyyah Silsilah is Hadhrat Khwajah Mueenuddin Chishti Ajmeri (rahmatullah alayh); founder of the Qaderiyyah Order is Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (rahmatullah alayh); founder of the Naqshabandiyyah Order is Hadhrat Shaikh Bahauddin Naqshabuddin (rahmatullah alayh); and the founder of the Suharwardiyyah Silsilah is Hadhrat Shaikh Shahabuddin Suharwardiyyah (rahmatullah alayh).

Females unlawful for marriage

The females prohibited for marriage are the following. The Holy Quraan says: (4:23): “Forbidden to you are your

  1. mothers,
  2. and your daughters,
  3. and your sisters,
  4. and your paternal aunts,
  5. and your maternal aunts,
  6. and your brother’s daughters,
  7. and sister’s daughters,
  8. and your mothers that have suckled you,
  9. and sister’s daughters,
  10. and mothers of your wives,
  11. and your step daughters who are in your guardianship born of your wives to whom you have gone in, but if you have not gone into them, there is no blame on you,
  12. and the wives of your sons who are of your loins,
  13. and that you shall not have two sisters together except what has already passed,
  14. and all married women except those whom your right hand possess.”

Islam allowed a man or a girl to select his or her mate after sights and glances and not beyond that. This instruction is neglected in Muslim societies generally in India, following strict notion of Pardah. Guardians should arrange for a sight ceremony so that the bridal parties may not repent afterwards.

According to Imam-e-A’zam Abu Hanifa (alaihir rahmah), it is lawful to have a sight of the bride and bridegroom before marriage.

Sayyidah Ayesha (radi Allahu anha) reported that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Whoso female gets herself married without permission of her guardian, her marriage is void, her marriage is void, her marriage is void. If he had intercourse with her, there is dowry for her on account of her private parts having been made lawful. If they dispute, then the King is the guardian for those who have got no guardian”. (Abu Da’ood)

In a contract of marriage, two witnesses at least are essential. Sayyiduna Ibn-e-Abbas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Beloved Habeeb (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “The fornicators are those who marry by themselves without witnesses”. (Tirmidi)

Buy and Sale

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported from the Glorious Messenger (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) who said: “The two (seller and buyer) must not part away except by mutual consent.” (Abu Da’ood)

Sale is contracted by a declaration and acceptance expressed unequivocally in words or in expressions conveying the same meaning. The acceptance may be deferred until the breaking up of the meeting whether the declaration be made personally or by letter or message. An offer made by the purchaser cannot be restricted by the seller or to any particular parts of the goods. A little deviation from the offer or acceptance will not make the sale complete. A sale may be entered into either for ready money or for payment within a fixed time. Gains may be sold for other gains of different species.

There are four kinds of sale:

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DRESS

Islam has laid stress on proper dressing. Sayyiduna Ibn-e-Abbas (radi Allahu anhuma) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Eat whatever you wish and wear whatever you desire unless there is extravagance or false pride.” (Bukhari)

Sayyiduna Anas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) liked to wrap himself in Hibrah which was a stripped shawl manufactured in Yemen. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Sayyiduna Jaabir Bin Samrah (radi Allahu anhu) reported: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) wrapping in red-striped shawl in a moonlit night. I looked the face of the Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and then at the moon and I found the Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) prettier than the moon”.  (Tirmidi)

Sayyiduna Abu Burdah (radi Allahu anhu) reported: “I visited Sayyidah Ayesha (radi Allahu anha) who took out for us a small blanket full of patches and a coarse lower garment and swore in the Name of Allah  that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was wearing these clothes when he breathed his last”. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Allah will not grant him His sight of Mercy who wears a wrapper so low that it touches the ground.” (Bukhari) Same reported that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “The portion of the wrapper, which is lower than the ankle, is in Fire.” (Bukhari)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Beloved Habeeb (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) cursed the man who wears the ladies dress and cursed the woman who wears the gent’s dress. (Abu Da’ood) We can use the silk in bed-sheets and pillows. Tassar is also a kind of coarse silk and is as unlawful as the fine silk, Kashi silk and China silk. The cloth made of jute which appears to be like silk can be used but the theologians say that religious leaders should keep away from wearing these as people would think that they are wearing silk. We can use buttons of gold and silver but these buttons should not have the chain of the same metal.

BEARD

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Glorious Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Five things are from the traditions of the Prophets of the old: circumcision, removing the hair below the navel, trimming the moustaches, cutting the nails and removing the hair from armpit”. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Trim your moustaches and grow your beard and follow not the fire-worshippers”. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Sayyiduna Zaid Bin Arqam (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Beloved Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who does not trim his moustaches is not of us”. (Tirmidi, Nisai)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who does not shave off the hair from the abdomen and does not cut his nails and does not trim his moustaches, is not of us”. (Muslim)

Sayyiduna Anas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the maximum exemption for shaving off the hair from the abdomen and armpit and for cutting nails and for trimming the moustaches is forty days. (Muslim)

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Don’t pluck white hair, as it is the light of a Muslim. He who grows grey as a Muslim, Allah will write for him virtue and rub off his sins and raise him in status.” (Abu Da’ood)

Sayyiduna Ka’b Bin Murrah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Glorious Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who grows old in Islam, the old age will serve him as a light on the Day of Resurrection.” (Tirmidi, Nisaai)

Sayyiduna Omar (radi Allahu anhu) reported that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has forbidden shaving off the hair from the neck. (Tabraani)

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Habeeb of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has forbidden women from shaving off the head. (Nisaai)

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) says it is better to start cutting nails from the little finger of the right hand, then the middle finger, followed by the thumb, then the ring finger, and lastly, the pointer. In the left hand start from the thumb, then the middle finger, and then the little finger, then the pointer, and lastly, the ring finger.

The above is a complicated way and a difficult one for the common men to remember. There is another easy method of cutting the nails, also reported from Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). That is to start cutting the nails from the pointer of the right hand and finish with the little finger. Then start cutting the nails of the left hand beginning from the little finger and finish with the thumb and finally cut the nails of the right thumb. (Durr-e-Mukhtar)

Eating one’s nails is highly abominable and may cause leprosy. (Alamgiri)

Manners of Drinking

Sayyiduna Anas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that Allah’s Messenger (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) used to take three breaths in a drink. (Agreed) Muslim added in a narration: He used to say that it is highly thirst removing, most conducive to health and most digestive.

Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn-e-Abbas (radi Allahu anhuma) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) prohibited drinking from the mouth of a skin-carrier. (Agreed)

Sayyiduna Abu Sa’eed Khudri (radi Allahu anhu) reported that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) forbade drinking by upsetting the water-pots. And he added in a narration: ”And its upsetting is to upset its head and then to take drink from it”. (Agreed)

Sayyiduna Anas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) prohibited a man to drink in a standing posture.  (Muslim)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Glorious Prophet of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “None of you shall drink standing. Whoever forgets, let him vomit.” (Muslim)

Sayyidah Umm-e-Salmah (radi Allahu anha) reported that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Whoever drinks in a silver cup, the Hell-Fire will flow in his belly with noise.”(Agreed)

Sayyiduna Hudhaifah (radi Allahu anhu) reported: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) say, “Don’t put on silk and embroidered silk, and drink not in cups of gold and silver, and take no food in plates made thereof, because they are for them (unbeliever) in this world and they are for you in the next world”. (Agreed)

Sayyiduna Ibn-e-Abbas (radi Allahu anhuma) reported that the Holy Prophet of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) forbade to take breath or to give out breath in drinking pot. (Abu Da’ood)

In another narration he reports: The Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: Don’t take drink in one breath like the drinking of camel, but take drink twice or thrice and utter “Bismillah” when you drink and utter “Alhamdu Lillah” when you finish.

Unlawful Food

“The great principle for knowing what is lawful and unlawful food is that what the Holy Quraan and Hadith prohibited is unlawful and what is besides that is lawful”. There are certain things, which have not been expressly permitted or prohibited.  These are doubtful things. These are considered as Mubah or simply lawful. There are two things introduced by jurists between lawful and unlawful things: One is Mubah, near the lawful things and the other is Makrooh, near the unlawful things, but nevertheless lawful. The abominable things being near the unlawful things should be avoided as far as possible by pious Muslims, as none should even go to the neighbourhood of the places of destruction or epidemics. In that case, there is but little space to fall into illegality. The pious Muslims should not go even to the borderline of illegality. The Mubah things are lawful and can be taken if constitution and climate permit.

The effect of food and drink upon the body and temperaments is wonderful. The medical men therefore prescribe special diets for patients, so that indiscriminate diet may not injure the body. Different things have got different properties for different uses according to the requirements of men, and they have naturally got different effect on body. As soundness of mind depends on soundness of body, therefore food and drink may be said to be one of the principal causes, which lead a man to vice, and virtue. The control of food and drink is the control of the vices and promotion of virtues.

Almighty Allah and His Messenger (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) therefore prescribed such food for men as are conducive to them from a temporal and religious point of view. This is also the reason why lawful food, unlawfully acquired, has been made unlawful as it greatly affects the moral tendency of a man.

The Holy Quraan and Hadith have expressly prohibited the following foods and things:

  1. Food on which Allah’s Name is not taken or meat of a lawful animal or bird which is not slaughtered in the Name of Allah. The Holy Quraan says: And don’t eat of that on which Allah’s Name has not been mentioned. That is surely a transgression. (6:122)
  2. Everything which is offered to idols.
  3. All animals, which die of themselves without slaughter in the Name of Allah. These include also animals strangled to death, or beaten to death, or killed by a fall, or attacked by horns and killed, or torn to death by beasts.
  4. All bloods flowing.
  5. All beasts and birds of prey; all quadrupeds that seize prey with teeth, and all birds which seize it with talons, viz., foxes, hyenas, elephants, weasels, kites, crows, raven, crocodiles, insects, domestic asses, mules, swines, and men.
  6. All unclean things repugnant to health and morality, viz., dogs, cats, mules, horses, asses, lizards, swines, etc.

In support of these, the following Quraanic verses are quoted: Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other than Allah has been invoked, and the strangled animal, and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall, and that killed by being smitten with horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten except what you slaughter. (5: 3)

There is a reservation in case of extreme necessity, such as possibilities of death for want of food. In that circumstance, a small quantity of unlawful things, which can barely save life, becomes lawful. The Holy Quraan says: “But whoever is driven to necessity, not desiring, nor exceeding the limit, no sin shall be upon him.” (2: 173)

It so happens sometimes that the food is being served and suddenly some stranger or guest enters. The master of the house invites the newcomer to join. If the master does not invite the stranger, it is considered a very bad manner. Invitation to a Muslim brother to food is a virtuous thing, but this invitation should not be for the name’s sake. This is also a custom these days that the stranger who is invited to join the food says: “No thanks!” or say “Bismillah”. The scholars have prevented us not to say that. Anybody who is invited to join food should say, “May Allah bless you with abundance in food.”

If a man is too hungry to go out and ask the people to help him, in that case it is abiding on those persons who know his condition to provide him with food. If the man dies of hunger, the persons who knew his condition but did not give him food, would be answerable to Almighty Allah.

Sayyidah Ayesha (radi Allahu anha) asked Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) what were the things, which we cannot refuse to others. He said: “Water, salt and fire.” She said: “O Allah’s Apostle (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)! Why can’t we refuse salt and fire to others?” He said: One who gives others a share in his fire, it is as if he has given in Sadaqa the entire stuff cooked on that fire, and he who gives others a share in his salt, it is as if he has given in Sadaqa the complete dish processed with that salt; and he who quenches the thirst of a Muslim at a place where water is not available, it is as if he resurrects a dead. (Ibn-e-Majah)

Sayyiduna Abu Waqed Laithi (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) came to Madina and they had liking for humps of camels and for cutting the tails of sheep. He said: “What is taken off from animals while they are alive is a dead thing. It shall not be taken” (Tirmidi, Abu Da’ood)

Lawful Foods

There are three kinds of things which are generally consumed by men, viz.

  1. things of mines,
  2. vegetables and crops grown from the earth, and
  3. animals.

The first two kinds are lawful except what is injurious to health, life and intelligence. Intoxicating drugs cause harm to intelligence and are, therefore, unlawful. Poisonous plants are injurious to life and they are, therefore, unlawful.

Among lawful things, there should be some sort of discrimination for the sake of health according to taste and repugnance. Anything distasteful or repugnant to nature should not be eaten, as it may injure health although the thing to be taken is lawful. This version finds corroboration with The Holy Quraan: “O People! Eat the lawful and good things out of what is in the earth.” (2:57)

Imam Maalik (alaihir rahmah) and others hold that all aquatic animals are lawful except sea-dog and sea-hog. Imam Shafi’i (alaihir rahmah) maintains that all aquatic animals are lawful without discrimination. Imam-e-A’zam Abu Hanifa (alaihir rahmah) holds that fish, which die by accident and float, are lawful but abominable. Sayyiduna Abu Zubair (radi Allahu anhu) reported from Sayyiduna Jaabir (radi Allahu anhu) who said that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Eat what the sea throws up (fish) and is left by the tide, and don’t eat what dies therein and floats.” (Abu Da’ood, Ibn-e-Majah)

Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn-e-Abbas (radi Allahu anhuma) reported that the pre-Islamic Arabs used to eat some things and leave other things out of dislike. Then, Allah sent His Messenger (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and sent down His Book and made lawful His lawful things and made unlawful his unlawful things. Whatever He made lawful is lawful and whatever He made unlawful is unlawful, and whatever He remained silent is allowable. He recited, “O Say: I don’t find any thing prohibited in what was revealed to me for an eater except what dies of itself.” (The Quraan, 6:146)

BEGGING

Islam finds poverty repugnant and does not allow its followers to accept it as a matter of fact, but requires them to take positive action to stamp it out.

Begging is a nuisance for prevention of which the modern societies are trying to promulgate enactment. The Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) promulgated the sound policy in this matter, which has baffled the most fertile brains of the world.  He made it unlawful except in case of deserving persons. At the same time he left instructions to the rich not to return a beggar. The Holy Quraan says: “As for a beggar, don’t drive him.” (93:10)

As a general rule, begging is unlawful in Islam for the following reasons:

  1. By begging, a man loses reliance upon Almighty Allah and complains indirectly against Almighty Allah gifts which are interwoven in his very person and all around the universe. Instead of turning to Almighty Allah for assistance and help, he turns towards men. Therefore, The Holy Quraan says: “And He will give him provision from whence he thinks not; and whoever trusts in Allah He is sufficient for him.” (65:3)
  2. By begging, the beggar lowers himself before his fellow creatures and brings himself in contemptible estimation of the people.
  3. By begging, the beggar gives uneasy trouble to one begged. The latter feels annoyance and is put between two horns of a dilemma to pay or not to pay. If alms are paid, there is loss in property, and if not paid, there is loss in fame and fear of Almighty Allah.

Sayyiduna Zubair Bin Awam (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Glorious Prophet Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: That one of you takes his rope and then comes with a load of wood upon his back and sells it is better than to beg of men whether they give or reject him. (Bukhari)

Sayyiduna Qabisah Bin Makhareq (radi Allahu anhu) reported: I became surety for a debt and came to the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to ask him about it. He said, Wait till Zakaah comes to us, and then we shall order something thereof for you. Then he said, O Dear Qabisah! Surely begging is not lawful except for one of these three reasons  a man who becomes surety for a debt; it then becomes lawful for him to beg till he gets it, after which he shall withhold; a man having met with a misfortune which has ruined his property it is lawful for him to beg till it enables him to get livelihood (or he said means of livelihood); and a man who meets with dire necessity, till three men of understanding of his tribe stand up (and say): Dire necessity afflicted such one- it is lawful for him to beg till he finds means for livelihood. O Qabisah! What is besides these in begging is unlawful and its owner eats unlawful things. (Muslim)

Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn-e-Omar (radi Allahu anhuma) reported that Allah’s Messenger (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said while he was on the pulpit speaking about charity and refraining from begging: “The upper hand is better than the lower, and the upper hand is that which gives and the lower is that which begs.” (Agreed)


Sayyiduna Samorah Bin Jundub (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: Whoso begs of men having sufficient means will come on the Resurrection Day with his begging as scratch wounds or bruises on his face. It was questioned: O Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)! What is sufficient for him? He said: Fifty Dirhams or their price in gold. (Abu Da’ood, Ibn-e-Majah, Nisai)

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