Important Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) Terminology

» Fard – Obligatory: An act commanded by Allah in the Holy Qur’an is known as Fard. The following explains a Fard in detail:

a. An act that is obligatory to be executed

b. It has been proven by rigorously authenticated texts

c. The denial of any Fard renders one to come out of the folds of Islam.

d. If one omits to perform any Fard without any valid shari’i reason, then such a person becomes a fasiq (transgressor) and the person is regarded as a major sinner. [Fatawa Ridawiyyah – Vol. 2, Page 194]

» Wajib – Necessary:

An act that is almost as compulsory as a Fard. The Messenger of Allah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallam never omitted it. It is a graded second, below a Fard in its necessity.

a. An act that is compulsory to do.

b. It is proven by religious arguments through ijtihad.

c. One who denies a Wajib is misguided. Read the rest of this entry »

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THE FARAA’IDH OF UMRAH

Ihraam
Four circuits of Tawaaf

The Importance of Hajj

1. Hajj or Pilgrimage to Makkatul Mukarramah is the fifth pillar of Islam.
2. It is a duty of a Muslim, who can afford it, to visit the Holy Kaaba in Makkatul Mukarramah at least once in a lifetime.
3. Hajj became Fard on the Muslims in 9 A.H.
4. Hajj is actually a gathering for Muslims from all parts of the world to meet and strengthen the ties of Islamic Brotherhood.
5. By putting on the Ihraam, a Muslim is made to think about death and leaving this world with only a simple piece of cloth that he or she has to wear in the Qabar.
6. By making Hajj, a Muslim sacrifices his money and pleasure for the Sake of Almighty Allah.

Upon whom is Hajj Fard?

Hajj is Fard upon :
1. An adult Muslim male or female.
2. One who is free from all debts.
3. One who is fit in body and in mind.
4. One who has enough money to cover all costs of the journey and be able to support one’s family while one is away.
5. One who is confident of travelling safely.
Note: Hajj is not Fard upon those women who do not have a “Mahram” to accompany them. By “Mahram” is meant those people to whom it is Haraam for the woman to marry.

The Faraa’id (Fard) of Hajj

1. The person must be in Ihraam.
2. One has to make Tawaaf around the Holy Kaaba after the Wuqoof at Arafaat and Muzdalifa.
3. One has to be present at Arafaat on the 9th of Zil-Hajj.

FASTING MERITS, RULES AND SUPPLICATIONMERITS

Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala says: “O believers! Fastings have been made obligatory upon you as were made before you, so that you may become pious.” (2:183) Thus the fastings were obligatory on Muslims and it became the third pillar of Islam. Regarding merits of fastings there are so many Hadiths have been narrated, some of them are being referred below:

Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (radi Allahu anhu) said that our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that he who keeps fast with belief and hope of getting blessings then his forthcoming sins will be forgiven and he who believes and prays in the nights of Ramadaan with the intention of getting blessings then his forthcoming sins will be forgiven and he who believes and prays with the intention of getting blessings in the night of Qadr, his forthcoming sins will be forgiven. (Bukhari & Muslim)

Sayyiduna Suhail bin Sa’ad (radi Allahu anhu) said that our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that in Heaven there is a door which is called “RAYAN”. On the Day of Judgment (Qiyamah) only the people who observed fastings will enter into Heaven through this door. Nobody other than those mentioned will enter. A call will be made, where are those who used to keep fasts? Then the people of fasting will stand up and enter into Heaven and then the door would be closed and none could be able to enter through this. (Muslim)

Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (radi Allahu anhu) said that I have heard our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) saying that Allah says: All the deeds other than fasts are for the men himself but fastings is for Me and I only will give reward for that. I swear by Who has Power on my Soul that the smell from the mouth of a fasting person is better than the smell of “Musk” scent. (Muslim)

SAUM(Fasting) RULES

RULES:

1. For every day’s fasting, intention must be done before the time of “Zawaal” or (Nisf un Nahar Sharayee).
2. Intention for fasting need not be pronounced, only intention by heart is sufficient but it is better to pronounce the words. (Bahare Shari’at, part 5)
3. Eating by mistake does not break the fasting, putting oil in your hair or putting black powder in the eyes and entering a fly in the mouth or smoke or dust of flour do not break the fasting. Gargling the mouth and throwing out the water then swallowing the wetness in the mouth and entering water in the ear does not break the fasting. If you cough and swallow the spit of any quantity does not break the fasting. Nightfall and backbiting also does not break the fast although backbiting is a great sin. Similarly, if you are fasting but did not took bath after sex then it will not break the fast although to remain without bath (Ghusl) for whole day is Haraam. If your lips become wet with your saliva and are then swallowed, Fast will not break. (Bahare Shari’at, part 5)
4. If you were gargling, the water went inside without intention or the water went up inside the nose or putting oil in the ear or putting drops inside the nose breaks the fasting if you remember that you are fasting.
5. Intentionally mouthful of vomiting breaks the fast if you remember that you are fasting, if it is less than mouthful vomiting then fasting did not break.
6. If you vomitted unintentionally but if it is less than a mouthful, then fasting did not break but if it is mouthful and you swallowed it back, then it did break the fasting.
7. If tears entered in the mouth and if they are more than one or two drops and you felt the salty taste in the whole mouth then it did break the fasting.
8. If you spit on your hand and then swallow your spit or swallow somebody’s spit then it did break the fasting.
9. Drinking water or eating while sleeping breaks the fasting.
10. Kissing, touching and having sex with your wife leadinq to discharqe breaks the fasts.
11. Normally eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or beetle-leaves breaks the fasts if you remember that you are observing fast. (Bahare Shari’at, part 5)
12. To break the Ramadaan fasts intentionally is punishable by a fine. For breaking every Ramadaan fast intentionally – as a fine one has to keep 60 days continuous fasting. If it is not possible, then pay for the release of one slave for each fast. If this is not possible, then provide food for 60 poor men twice daily. (Qanoon-e-Shari’at, part 1)
13. Lying, backbiting, ugly words, dirty talking and giving trouble to others makes fasting Makrooh (less blessings). Collecting saliva in your mouth and then swallowing it also makes fasting Makrooh. Delay in Sehri (eating before daybreak) is permissible but delaying up to the point of daybreak is Makrooh. (Bahare Shari’at, part 5)
14. Cleaning your teeth with Miswak (a stick to dean the teeth) in fasting is not Makrooh. (Bahare Shari’at, part 5)

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