Obstacles in the Path of Knowledge

All Praise is due to Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala and Choicest Salutations upon His August Habib Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him.

I am sharing this brief note extracted from “Fadl al-Ilm wa al-Ulama“, the Blessed book by Aarife-Billah, ash-Shaykh al-Imam Naqi Ali al-Qadiri Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho on the Excellence of Knowledge and the Ulama. Here we will discuss about some obstacles to the path of seeking knowledge. I humbly pray that this note will enlighten the hearts and encourage my Muslim brothers and sisters to acquire the knowledge of Deen.

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Tayyammum

“Tayyammum” or “Dry Ablution” can be done in place of Wudu or Ghusal.

Conditions for Tayyammum

Tayyammum can only be made under the following conditions:

1. If there is no water after making a search for water within a two and a half kilometre (2.5 km) area.
2. If a person is very sick and fears that the use of water will cause more illness or harm to the person.
3. If a person is becoming late for Janazah Salaah or Eid Salaah.
4. If a person fears being attacked by snakes or animals if he or she goes for water.
5. When water is very scarce and only sufficient for drinking purposes.

How to Make Tayyammum

STEP 1: Make the Niyyah (Intention) for Tayyammum:
STEP 2: Strike both hands on the earth, sand or dust or any object having dust on it. Then, dust the hands clean or blow the extra dust off the hands and wipe the entire face (as done in Wudu) without leaving out any part of the face.
STEP 3: Strike both hands again on the ground, dust clean and wipe the right arm up to the elbow with the left hand and left arm with the right hand. Make Khilal of the fingers. If one is wearing a ring or bangle, it is necessary to remove it or shift it. If one has a beard, it is Sunnah to also make Khilal of the beard (run fingers through the beard).

The Fard (Faraa’id) & Sunnahs of Tayyammum

The Fard (Faraa’id) of Tayyammum

The Faraa’id of Tayyammum are:

1. To make the Niyyah (intention) for Tayyammum.
2. Striking both palms on the earth or dust and wiping them over the face.
3. Striking both palms on the earth or dust and wiping them over the arms till the elbows.

The Sunnahs of Tayyammum

The Sunnahs of Tayyammum are:

1. To begin with the “Bismillah.”
2. To start with the right hand.
3. To make Khilal of the beard.
4. To make Khilal of the fingers.
5. To make Tayyammum in the proper sequence.

Objects on which Tayyammum can be Performed & cannot be Performed

Objects on which Tayyammum can be Performed

1. Earth (clean soil)
2. Sand
3. Stone
4. Lime
5. Baked earthen pots which are unglazed.
6. Walls of mud, stone or brick.
7. Clay
8. Things that do not melt or burn to ashes.

Objects on which Tayyammum cannot be Performed

1. Wood
2. Metals
3. Glass
4. Food
5. Items which burns to ash or which rots and melts.

Actions which break Tayyammum

1. The same actions which break the Wudu or Ghusal.
2. The finding of water.
3. After one is fit.
4. If there is no more danger from snakes or animals.

Method of making Wudu

Wudu (Ablution) is the key to Salaah and it is essential that we perform Wudu first before we begin Salaah. These are the steps to take when making Wudu:

Method of making Wudu

First, make the Niyyah (Intention) for Wudu:

a: Wash both the hands up to the wrist 3 times making sure that water has reached between the fingers.
b: Next, put a handful of water into the mouth and rinse it thoroughly 3 times.
c: After this, sniff water into the nostrils 3 times to clean them and then wash the tip of the nose 3 times.
d: Wash the face 3 times from right ear and from the forehead to the throat.
e: Wash the right arm and then the left arm thoroughly from the wrist to the elbow 3 times.
f: Then move the palm of the wet hand over the head, starting from the top of the forehead to the back and pass both hands over the back of the head to the neck.
g: Next, rub wet fingers into the grooves of both ears and holes and also pass the wet thumbs behind the ears.
h: Next pass the back of wet hands over the nape.
i: Finally, wash both feet to the ankles starting from the right and making sure that water has reached between the toes and all other parts of the feet.

The Fards (Faraa’id) of Wudu

There are 4 Fard in Wudu which we must strictly follow. These 4 Fards are:

1. To wash the face – which is from the forehead till the chin and from one ear to the other ear once.
2. To wash both the arms till the elbows once.
3. To make Masah of at least a quarter of the head. By quarter is meant 4 fingers width.
4. To wash the feet till the ankles once.
5. If these 4 actions are not carried out, then the Wudu will be incomplete. It will, therefore, be Haraam for a person to read Salaah.

The Sunnahs of Wudu

There are also some Sunnahs of the Wudu, which if you perform will earn you immense Thawaab. These Sunnahs are:

1. To make the intention of Wudu before you begin.
2. To say “Bismillah” before you begin.
3. To wash the hands up to the wrist 3 times.
4. To gargle the mouth.
5. To wash the nostril.
6. To use Miswaak to clean the teeth. “Miswaak” is a special tooth-brush made from the roots of certain trees.
7. To make Wudu in the correct sequence.
8. To wash all parts immediately one after the other.
9. To wash all parts 3 times.
10. To make Masah of the ears.
11. To make Masah of the whole head.
12. To make “Khilal” of the beard (pass wet fingers through the beard).
13. To make Khilal of the fingers and toes (pass wet fingers in between the toes and fingers).

When does Wudu become Makrooh ?

There are certain actions which are “Makrooh” or “undesirable” in Wudu. Some of these actions are:

1. To make Wudu in a dirty place.
2. To cleanse the nose using the right hand.
3. To talk of worldly things while making Wudu.
4. To perform Wudu in any sequence, for example, to wash the feet first then the face.
5. To waste water.
6. To use too little water so that certain parts are not washed properly.
7. To splash water on the face.
8. To ask someone for help in making Wudu without a proper reason.

The Mustahabs of Wudu

There are certain acts which are “Mustahab” or “preferable” in Wudu. Some of these acts are:

1. To face the Qiblah. Remember that you should not spit towards the Qiblah.
2. To make Wudu in a clean place.
3. To read “Bismillah” before washing each part.
4. To read the proper Du’as when washing each part.
5. To wash each part from the right side.
6. To shift or to remove rings or bangles and to let the water pass under these objects.
7. To clean the nostrils with the left hand.
8. To clean the inside of the ears.
9. To read the Du’a and the Kalimah Shahaadah after Wudu and to also read Surah Qadr facing towards the sky.

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