THE MODE OF BAY’T

The bay’t is enacted by the Shaikh taking into his right hand the right hand of the mureed (disciple). If the group contracting the bay’t is large, the Shaikh uses a length of cloth onto which each member of the group holds with his right hand. Ladies who contract the bay’t do so from behind a screen. A mahram of the lady should also be present at the bay’t ceremony. Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) said:

“Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) never touched the palm of a woman, but he would make the (pledge-bay’t) upon her. Upon having made the bay’t he would say. ‘Go! Verify, I have already made bay’t with you.’ ” (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu-Dawood)

It is for this reason that in entering ladies into the bay’t, the Masha-ikh do so verbally or by means of a cloth which is spread from the Shaikh to the lady behind the screen. This is the method of bay’t when in the presence of the Shaikh. Those who are not able to present themselves personally to the Shaikh could contract the bay’t by means of a letter or through the agency of a responsible and trustworthy person. This form of bay’t is called bay’t-e-Uthmani. Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) on the occasion of bay’t-e-Ridhwan made the bay’t of Hadhrat Uthmaan in his (Uthmaan Radi Allahu anhu’s) absence. On this occasion, Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) placed his right hand on his left hand and announced that he has made bay’t of Uthmaan (Radi Allahu anhu). (The bay’t in absence of the mureed is therefore termed bay’t-e-Uthmaani,)

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Bay’t (Mutual Pledge)

Bay’t is a mutual pledge relating to the striving, arranging, executing and adhering to the laws of A’male Zahiri and A’male Batini. This pledge is called Bay’t-e-Tareeqat which has been in vogue by authoritative transmission from generation to generation from the earliest time of Islam.

Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) had enacted bay’t of the Sahaabah not only on Jihad, but on Islam and the adherence of the Ahkam (Laws in general) as well on practical deeds (A’mal). This is established by numerous Ahadith. The following hadith is one such Hadith:

“Auf Ibn Maalik Ash-ja-ee (radhiyallahu anhu) said: We were with Nabi (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam), seven, eight or nine (of us), when he (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) said:

‘Will you not make bay’t (pledge) to the Rasul (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) of Allah (Azzawajal) ?’

We stretched our hands and enquired: On what shall we make bay’t to you, O Rasul (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) of Allah (Azzawajal)? He said:

‘That you make the Ibaadat of Allah (Azzawajal); that you associate nothing with Him; that you perform the five Salaat; that you hear and obey.” (Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nisai)

On this occasion the bay’t which Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) took from the Sahaabah was neither Bay’t Imaani (Pledge of Imaan) nor Bay’t Jihaadi (Pledge to wage Jihad). This Hadith is categoric proof for the validity of the system of bay’t in vogue by the Masha-ikh of Tasawwuf. Like there are four Math-habs (Schools of Thought) in Fiqh, viz. Hanafi, Shafi, Maaliki and Hambali, so too are there four schools of thought in Tasawwuf, viz., Chishtiyya, Qaderiyyah, Naqshabandiyyah and Suharwardiyyah. Like the Hanafi Way is dominant in this area (India and Pakistan), the Chistiyyah Way too is dominant here. Our akabir (authorities in Tasawwuf) enter into (bay’t) in all the four Schools of Thought (Silsilah) so that respect for the four Silsilah is maintained although Chishtiyyat is dominant .

The founder of the Chishtiyyah Silsilah is Hadhrat Khwajah Mueenuddin Chishti Ajmeri (rahmatullah alayh); founder of the Qaderiyyah Order is Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (rahmatullah alayh); founder of the Naqshabandiyyah Order is Hadhrat Shaikh Bahauddin Naqshabuddin (rahmatullah alayh); and the founder of the Suharwardiyyah Silsilah is Hadhrat Shaikh Shahabuddin Suharwardiyyah (rahmatullah alayh).

BEARD

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Glorious Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Five things are from the traditions of the Prophets of the old: circumcision, removing the hair below the navel, trimming the moustaches, cutting the nails and removing the hair from armpit”. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Trim your moustaches and grow your beard and follow not the fire-worshippers”. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Sayyiduna Zaid Bin Arqam (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Beloved Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who does not trim his moustaches is not of us”. (Tirmidi, Nisai)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who does not shave off the hair from the abdomen and does not cut his nails and does not trim his moustaches, is not of us”. (Muslim)

Sayyiduna Anas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the maximum exemption for shaving off the hair from the abdomen and armpit and for cutting nails and for trimming the moustaches is forty days. (Muslim)

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Don’t pluck white hair, as it is the light of a Muslim. He who grows grey as a Muslim, Allah will write for him virtue and rub off his sins and raise him in status.” (Abu Da’ood)

Sayyiduna Ka’b Bin Murrah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Glorious Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who grows old in Islam, the old age will serve him as a light on the Day of Resurrection.” (Tirmidi, Nisaai)

Sayyiduna Omar (radi Allahu anhu) reported that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has forbidden shaving off the hair from the neck. (Tabraani)

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Habeeb of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has forbidden women from shaving off the head. (Nisaai)

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) says it is better to start cutting nails from the little finger of the right hand, then the middle finger, followed by the thumb, then the ring finger, and lastly, the pointer. In the left hand start from the thumb, then the middle finger, and then the little finger, then the pointer, and lastly, the ring finger.

The above is a complicated way and a difficult one for the common men to remember. There is another easy method of cutting the nails, also reported from Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). That is to start cutting the nails from the pointer of the right hand and finish with the little finger. Then start cutting the nails of the left hand beginning from the little finger and finish with the thumb and finally cut the nails of the right thumb. (Durr-e-Mukhtar)

Eating one’s nails is highly abominable and may cause leprosy. (Alamgiri)

BEGGING

Islam finds poverty repugnant and does not allow its followers to accept it as a matter of fact, but requires them to take positive action to stamp it out.

Begging is a nuisance for prevention of which the modern societies are trying to promulgate enactment. The Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) promulgated the sound policy in this matter, which has baffled the most fertile brains of the world.  He made it unlawful except in case of deserving persons. At the same time he left instructions to the rich not to return a beggar. The Holy Quraan says: “As for a beggar, don’t drive him.” (93:10)

As a general rule, begging is unlawful in Islam for the following reasons:

  1. By begging, a man loses reliance upon Almighty Allah and complains indirectly against Almighty Allah gifts which are interwoven in his very person and all around the universe. Instead of turning to Almighty Allah for assistance and help, he turns towards men. Therefore, The Holy Quraan says: “And He will give him provision from whence he thinks not; and whoever trusts in Allah He is sufficient for him.” (65:3)
  2. By begging, the beggar lowers himself before his fellow creatures and brings himself in contemptible estimation of the people.
  3. By begging, the beggar gives uneasy trouble to one begged. The latter feels annoyance and is put between two horns of a dilemma to pay or not to pay. If alms are paid, there is loss in property, and if not paid, there is loss in fame and fear of Almighty Allah.

Sayyiduna Zubair Bin Awam (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Glorious Prophet Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: That one of you takes his rope and then comes with a load of wood upon his back and sells it is better than to beg of men whether they give or reject him. (Bukhari)

Sayyiduna Qabisah Bin Makhareq (radi Allahu anhu) reported: I became surety for a debt and came to the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to ask him about it. He said, Wait till Zakaah comes to us, and then we shall order something thereof for you. Then he said, O Dear Qabisah! Surely begging is not lawful except for one of these three reasons  a man who becomes surety for a debt; it then becomes lawful for him to beg till he gets it, after which he shall withhold; a man having met with a misfortune which has ruined his property it is lawful for him to beg till it enables him to get livelihood (or he said means of livelihood); and a man who meets with dire necessity, till three men of understanding of his tribe stand up (and say): Dire necessity afflicted such one- it is lawful for him to beg till he finds means for livelihood. O Qabisah! What is besides these in begging is unlawful and its owner eats unlawful things. (Muslim)

Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn-e-Omar (radi Allahu anhuma) reported that Allah’s Messenger (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said while he was on the pulpit speaking about charity and refraining from begging: “The upper hand is better than the lower, and the upper hand is that which gives and the lower is that which begs.” (Agreed)


Sayyiduna Samorah Bin Jundub (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: Whoso begs of men having sufficient means will come on the Resurrection Day with his begging as scratch wounds or bruises on his face. It was questioned: O Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)! What is sufficient for him? He said: Fifty Dirhams or their price in gold. (Abu Da’ood, Ibn-e-Majah, Nisai)

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